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Other preventive measures that target youth drivers include "zero tolerance" laws linking evidence of alcohol on the breath with suspension or revocation of driving privileges. Given the long latency period between infection and symptoms, most of these individuals were infected as adolescents.The results of two decades of evaluative research have yielded considerable information suggesting that a number of approaches to adolescent ATOD use prevention do not work. More than 126,000 cases of AIDS among individuals ages twenty to twenty-nine had been diagnosed in the U. Estimates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adolescents range from 112,000 to 250,000 in the United States, although actual prevalence is not known because representative data are not available.A variety of strategies have demonstrated effectiveness in preventing or reducing ATOD use.Project Alert, described by Phyllis Ellickson and colleagues in a 1993 article, and Life Skills Training Program, described by Gill Botvin and colleagues in 1995, are the two most-prevalent effective classroom-based-curricula.In the community and environmental domains, strategies have been developed to increase the enforcement of public policies and ordinances that inhibit adolescent substance use.These include efforts targeting tobacco and alcohol outlets, including restrictions on their location and density and on alcohol and tobacco advertising.Protective factors, or factors that promote resiliency, have also been identified in these various domains.Among those most frequently cited are religiosity or spirituality, commitment to academic achievement, strong life skills, social competencies, and belief in self-efficacy.
In the individual domain, substance use has been linked to values and beliefs about and attitudes toward substances, genetic susceptibility, early ATOD use, sensation seeking, and various psychological disorders including anti-social, aggressive, and other problem behaviors.
Mass media campaigns are of dubious value, especially if they are brief, aired in contexts that are unlikely to reach their target audience, and uncoordinated with a comprehensive, community-wide strategy. Strategies to Reduce Underage Alcohol Use: Typology and Brief Overview. Many adolescents are sexually experienced, but the extent of experience and risk varies for different groups of adolescents.
Unfortunately, relatively little is also known about prevention on college campuses. "Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Implications for Substance Abuse Prevention." Psychological Bulletin 1105. Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data indicate that about half of all high school students report having engaged in intercourse at least once.
Also effective is the vigorous enforcement of laws governing sales to minors, including using underage youth to buy alcohol and tobacco products in "sting" operations.
Increasing excise taxes on alcohol and tobacco products has also been associated with reductions in use, as has linking apprehension for infractions of laws related to purchasing and consuming ATODs to suspension or revocation of driver's licenses.Scare tactics, designed to frighten adolescents into avoiding drugs, are often recognized as such by their target audiences and can even be counterproductive. Estimates of HIV incidence in the early twenty-first century suggest that at least 50 percent of the 40,000 new infections in the United States each year are among individuals under twenty-five years old, and 25 percent are among persons aged twenty-one or younger.